Colored Pencil Basics for Beginners

A few weeks ago, I talked about what you needed to buy if you want to get started drawing with colored pencils. This week, let’s take a look at a few colored pencil basics.

Colored Pencil Basics for Beginners

Colored Papers

If you are thinking of using a colored paper, choose a color that works well with all parts of your artwork. The color of the paper should ideally provide a base color or a base complementary color for the artwork.

For example, if you want to depict a landscape on a rainy day, a light gray paper or a light gray-green paper is ideal. Gray paper provides an excellent base for a gray sky or misty air with very little work. A gray-green paper provides a good base for the greens in the landscape but might be more problematic for the sky if the sky is light.

For this little landscape, I used light gray paper. All I had to do was add the colors for the sky (white and light gray) and the landscape.

West of Bazaar, Original Colored Pencil

This is not to say that no other color would work, but would have taken longer to draw. The color of the paper will affect the drawing so choose a color that adds to the atmosphere or tone you want to set for the drawing.

Hard Lead Pencils

Using a pencil with a harder pigment formulation can be helpful for beginning a new drawing. Prismacolor Verithin pencils, for example, are much harder than Prismacolor Soft Core pencils. This means that they lay down less color even with heavy pressure. They are subsequently easier to lift or erase if you need to lighten an area or remove color altogether.

Oil-based colored pencils are generally harder than wax-based pencils so they’re also a good choice if you want to lay down a lot of layers, but don’t want to fill up the paper’s tooth too quickly.

Use light pressure in the early stages no matter what type of pencil you use.

Sharp Pencils

It’s important to keep your pencils well sharpened. The surface of most papers is made up of tiny hills and valleys. The difference between the tops of the “hills” and the bottoms of the “valleys” is what is called the paper’s tooth. The rougher a paper, the bigger the difference between the hills and valleys.

The sharper you keep your pencils, the better they reach all of the parts of the paper and the better they cover the paper. You can also combine sharp pencils with heavier pressures to get good coverage on papers.

Sharp pencils are also ideal for drawing detail.

You can use blunt pencils to good effect—they’re wonderful for covering a large area quickly. But it takes more pressure to get the same level of coverage with a blunt pencil.

Applying Pressure

It takes pressure to put color onto paper. Pressure is usually measured on a 10-point scale, with 0 being no pressure at all and 10 being burnishing pressure. Normal hand-writing pressure is generally considered to be 5 on the 10-point scale.

In most cases, it’s best to begin with light pressure and gradually increase pressure as you add more layers. It’s easier to correct or conceal mistakes drawn with light pressure. It’s also easier to avoid getting too dark too quickly if you add layers and colors little by little.

But you can do an entire drawing with heavy pressure. This method works best if you don’t plan to use a lot of color layers, since heavy pressure adds more wax binder as well as more color (assuming you’re using wax-based colored pencils.)

Getting Dark Without Getting Too Dark

While it is important to create solid darks in your artwork, it’s also important NOT to get too dark too early. Every layer of color darkens the shadows and middle tones.

It’s always better to stop short of what you think is the proper darkness. It’s much easier to darken shadows later than it is to lighten them.

Working On Everything At Once

Working the entire drawing at once (as opposed to finishing each area before moving on to the next) allows you to make adjustments throughout the process and keep the composition unified.

It’s not necessary to work in this fashion, but it can be helpful in establishing the initial layers of color.

One of my problems in my early drawings was avoiding seams. I always worked one section at a time and even when I used the same colors from one section to another, I could often tell where the two sections met—especially if I was working in an area of uniform color, like a grassy field. The best way I found to avoid this was to work over the entire area, one color at a time.

To Turn Your Paper or Not to Turn Your Paper

Turn the drawing if necessary to make it easier to apply color. Orient the drawing in a fashion that is most comfortable for the area you’re working on.  When doing large amounts of grass, for example, turn the drawing upside down so you can stroke toward yourself (which is more natural for most artists than stroking away). This will also reduce hand stress and give you a fresh perspective on the composition.

Reviewing Your Work

It can be productive and helpful to give your artwork a periodic check throughout the process.

Also try viewing it in a way other than normal. Ways to do this are

Viewing it in a mirror

Looking at it upside down

Viewing it from a distance

Setting it aside and looking at it after a couple of days

Imbalances in drawing, values or colors can more easily be seen when you look at your artwork in a way other than the normal.

Photographing or scanning your artwork and viewing it on your computer screen can also reveal problem areas or areas that are not quite complete.

5 Replies to “Colored Pencil Basics for Beginners”

  1. The fabulous portrait artist Ann Kullberg has described the pressure as being on a scale of 1 to 5. One is a whisper; five is a scream.

    As she teaches a workshop, she describes if she is whispering, talking or screaming with the pencils.

    It has been many years, so I don’t know if she is teaching anymore, but you MUST see her work. She is phenomenal!

    1. Jana,

      I’ve had the privilege of hosting Ann at two workshops here in Newton. You’re right, she is a fabulous artist and teacher.

      I like the whisper/scream comparison, too. That’s a very appropriate description for colored pencil.

      Thanks for reading and commenting!


  2. really enjoy, reading and learning about col.penci’s want to know more about which paper and weight on it. with col. pencil, I have a pic. of a blk. lab.half newfoundland. huge all, so going with blk. paper. but what weight and either watercol.or? thanks ahead for the help.. Gloria bauguess

    1. Gloria,

      So far as I know, there are no black watercolor papers, so if you want to work on black watercolor paper, you would have to paint it first either with watercolor, or by using colored pencil with solvents. Actually, painting the background with black, but leaving the dog itself white would be a good option.

      The type of drawing paper you use and the weight is a personal decision and is based on the way you work. For example, if you like a lot of detail, then you will most likely want to consider a smoother paper such as Stonehenge (especially if you use lots of layers of color.) If you build up color more directly, then something like Bristol would be good.

      For more information, read How to Choose the Right Paper for Your Next Drawing, and My Favorite Drawing Papers.

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