A few weeks ago, I talked about what you needed to buy if you want to get started drawing with colored pencils. This week, let’s take a look at a few colored pencil basics.
There’s so much to learn with any art medium that it can quickly get confusing. Confusing isn’t what I want to accomplish, so let’s stick with just a few of the essentials. Papers, pencils, pressure, and more.
Let’s begin with paper.
Colored Pencil Basics for Beginners
If you’re thinking of using a colored paper, choose a color that works well with all parts of your artwork. The color of the paper should ideally provide a base color for the artwork.
For example, for a landscape on a rainy day, light gray or a light gray-green paper is ideal. Gray paper provides an excellent base for a gray sky or misty air with very little work. Gray-green paper provides a good base for the greens in the landscape but might be more problematic for the sky if the sky is light.
For this little landscape, I used light gray paper. All I had to do was add the colors for the sky (white and light gray) and the landscape.
This is not to say no other paper color would work. I drew a more recent “gray day” landscape on very light tan paper for a slightly different look.
White paper is also a good choice for both landscapes, but would have taken longer to draw.
The color of the paper affects the drawing, so choose a color that adds to the atmosphere or tone you want to set for the drawing.
Hard Lead Pencils
Using a pencil with a harder lead can be helpful for beginning a new drawing. Prismacolor Verithin pencils are much harder than Prismacolor Soft Core pencils. The two red pencils are Prismacolor Soft Core. They’re what people usually think of when they think of Prismacolor pencils.
The two pencils on the bottom are also Prismacolor pencils, but they’re Prismacolor Verithin. The leads are thinner and harder because they contain less wax binder.
They hold a point longer, and lay down less color even with heavy pressure. They are subsequently easier to lift or erase if you need to lighten an area or remove color altogether.
Oil-based colored pencils are generally harder than wax-based pencils so they’re also a good choice if you want to lay down a lot of layers, but don’t want to fill up the paper’s tooth too quickly.
Use light pressure in the early stages no matter what type of pencil you use.
It takes pressure to put color onto paper. Pressure is usually measured on a 10-point scale, with “0” being no pressure at all and “10” being burnishing pressure. Normal hand-writing pressure is generally considered to be “5” on the 10-point scale.
In most cases, it’s best to begin with light pressure and gradually increase pressure as you add more layers. It’s easier to correct or conceal mistakes drawn with light pressure.
It’s also easier to avoid getting too dark too quickly if you add layers and colors little by little.
It’s important to keep your pencils well sharpened. The surface of most papers is made up of tiny hills and valleys. The difference between the tops of the “hills” and the bottoms of the “valleys” is what is called the paper’s tooth. The rougher a paper, the bigger the difference between the hills and valleys.
The sharper you keep your pencils, the better they reach all of the parts of the paper and the better they cover the paper.
You can also combine sharp pencils with heavier pressures to get good coverage on papers. Just don’t do this too early in the drawing because it flattens the tooth of the paper. That makes it more difficult to add more layers.
Sharp pencils are also ideal for drawing detail.
Blunt Can be Useful, Too
Blunt pencils are not always a bad thing. More paper shows through when you use blunt pencils, so color will appear more grainy.
Glazing color (applying a very think layer of color to tint color already on the paper) is best done with blunt or dull pencils in my experience. That’s because so much of the previous colors show through.
Using heavier pressure takes care of those paper holes (if you don’t want them.)
This method works best if you don’t plan to use a lot of color layers, since heavy pressure adds more wax binder as well as more color (assuming you’re using wax-based colored pencils.)
Getting Dark Without Getting Too Dark
Values are the most important tool you have to use. It’s more important to get the values right, than to get the color right.
It’s also important NOT to get too dark too early. Every layer of color darkens the shadows and middle tones.
It’s always better to stop short of what you think is the proper darkness. It’s much easier to darken shadows later than it is to lighten them.
Working On Everything At Once
Working the entire drawing at once (as opposed to finishing each area before moving on to the next) allows you to make adjustments throughout the process and keep the composition unified.
It’s not necessary to work in this fashion, but it can be helpful in establishing the initial layers of color.
One of my problems in my early drawings was avoiding seams. I always worked one section at a time and even when I used the same colors from one section to another, I could often tell where the two sections met—especially if I was working in an area of uniform color, like a grassy field. The best way I found to avoid this was to work over the entire area, one color at a time.
To Turn Your Paper or Not to Turn Your Paper
Turn the drawing if necessary to make it easier to apply color. Orient the drawing in a fashion that is most comfortable for the area you’re working on. When doing large amounts of grass, for example, turn the drawing upside down so you can stroke toward yourself (which is more natural for most artists than stroking away). This will also reduce hand stress and give you a fresh perspective on the composition.
Reviewing Your Work
It can be productive and helpful to give your artwork a periodic check throughout the process.
Also try viewing it in a way other than normal. Ways to do this are:
- Viewing it in a mirror
- Looking at it upside down
- Viewing it from a distance
- Setting it aside and looking at it after a couple of days
Imbalances in drawing, values or colors can more easily be seen when you look at your artwork in a way other than the normal.
Photographing or scanning your artwork and viewing it on your computer screen can also reveal problem areas or areas that are not quite complete.
There’s a lot more to creating beautiful colored pencil art, but these colored pencil basics are enough to get you started. Master these and you’re well on your way!